This graduate level text presents the first comprehensive overview of modern chemical valency and bonding theory, written by internationally recognised experts in the field. The authors build on the foundation of Lewis- and Pauling-like localized structural and hybridization concepts to present a book that is directly based on current ab-initio computational technology. The presentation is highly visual and intuitive throughout, based on the recognizable and transferable graphical forms of natural bond orbitals (NBOs) and their spatial overlaps in the molecular environment. The book shows applications to a broad range of molecular and supramolecular species of organic, inorganic and bioorganic interest. Hundreds of orbital illustrations help to convey the essence of modern NBO concepts for those with no extensive background in the mathematical machinery of the Schrodinger equation. This book will appeal to those studying chemical bonding in relation to chemistry, chemical engineering, biochemistry and physics.
Because of the importance of the hydrogen bond, there have been scores of insights gained about its fundamental nature by quantum chemical computations over the years. Such methods can probe subtle characteristics of the electronic structure and examine regions of the potential energy surface that are simply not accessible by experimental means. The maturation of the techniques, codes, and computer hardware have permitted calculations of unprecedented reliability and rivaling the accuracy of experimental data.
The first comprehensive, international comparison of bail, this book examines how common-law countries condemn or provide alternatives to the American commercial bail bonding system. In his analysis of bail systems in 15 countries, F. E. Devine explains why other common-law countries consider the commercial provision of bail an obstruction of justice, and how they provide effective alternatives. Devine examines the pre-trial release alternatives in detail, arguing that they are at least as effective as commercial bail bonding. Devine provides a complete, comparative analysis of bail in Australia, Canada, England, India, New Zealand and South Africa. He also examines the systems of Ireland, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Scotland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. He details the prohibition of, and statutory provisions against, commercial bail in these common-law countries, and then highlights four alternative approaches to pre-trial release: recognizance, criminal penalties, non-financial conditions, and non-commercial financial security deposits. Devine argues that these options are as effective as commercial bail. This book is valuable to scholars of criminal justice, criminology, comparative law, political science, and sociology, and to criminal justice reformers and professionals.
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