The first comprehensive, international comparison of bail, this book examines how common-law countries condemn or provide alternatives to the American commercial bail bonding system. In his analysis of bail systems in 15 countries, F. E. Devine explains why other common-law countries consider the commercial provision of bail an obstruction of justice, and how they provide effective alternatives. Devine examines the pre-trial release alternatives in detail, arguing that they are at least as effective as commercial bail bonding. Devine provides a complete, comparative analysis of bail in Australia, Canada, England, India, New Zealand and South Africa. He also examines the systems of Ireland, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Scotland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. He details the prohibition of, and statutory provisions against, commercial bail in these common-law countries, and then highlights four alternative approaches to pre-trial release: recognizance, criminal penalties, non-financial conditions, and non-commercial financial security deposits. Devine argues that these options are as effective as commercial bail. This book is valuable to scholars of criminal justice, criminology, comparative law, political science, and sociology, and to criminal justice reformers and professionals.
This graduate level text presents the first comprehensive overview of modern chemical valency and bonding theory, written by internationally recognised experts in the field. The authors build on the foundation of Lewis- and Pauling-like localized structural and hybridization concepts to present a book that is directly based on current ab-initio computational technology. The presentation is highly visual and intuitive throughout, based on the recognizable and transferable graphical forms of natural bond orbitals (NBOs) and their spatial overlaps in the molecular environment. The book shows applications to a broad range of molecular and supramolecular species of organic, inorganic and bioorganic interest. Hundreds of orbital illustrations help to convey the essence of modern NBO concepts for those with no extensive background in the mathematical machinery of the Schrodinger equation. This book will appeal to those studying chemical bonding in relation to chemistry, chemical engineering, biochemistry and physics.
Bonding in Microsystem Technology concerns the exciting field of microsystems (known under varying names as: MEMS, uTAS (analytical or chemical Microsystems), MOEMS: the micro-miniature devices, utilizing extremely miniaturized mechanical structures made usually from silicon by wet deep anisotropic etching. Such structures cannot be used directly, they must be designed and fabricated as a part of the three dimensional multi-layer sandwich built from silicon or silicon and glass. The procedures of formation of such a sandwich are known as bonding. The book contains the description of wet anisotropic micromachining of basic silicon micromechanical constructions and their utilization in microsystems followed by the detailed discussion of all of methods of bonding used for the formation of silicon and silicon-glass microsystems, with the special attention paid to the anodic bonding technique.
Bonding in Microsystem Technology starts with descriptions of terminology, kinds of microsystems and market analysis. Following this, presentation of mechanisms of wet etching, set of process parameters, description of micromachining methods, examples of procedures, process flow-charts and applications of basic micromechanical structures in microsystems are shown. Next, high-temperature, low temperature and room-temperature bonding and their applications in microsystem technology are presented. The following part of the book contains the detailed description of anodic bonding, starting from analysis of properties of glasses suitable for anodic bonding, and discussion of the nature of the process. Next all types of anodic bonding and sealing procedures used in microsystem technology are presented. This part of the book finishes with examples of applications of anodic bonding in microsystem technology taken from the literature but mainly based on the author s personal experience.
Bonding in Microsystem Technology is addressed to scientists and researchers, as well as to academic teachers and students, engineers active in the field of electric/electronics and microelectronics. It can serve as the encyclopaedia of wet etching and bonding for microsystem technology. Technological results presented in the book have been tested experimentally by the author and his team, and can be utilized in day-to-day laboratory practice. Special attention has been paid to the highest level of accessibility of the book by students. The book contains a large number of illustrations, algorithmic flow-charts and microsystems description and a rich index of literature sources."
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