Three different lines of approach have contributed to the theory of optimal planning. One approach considers the problem from the view-point of a national government and its adviser, the econometrician planning speciÂ alist. The government can, if this is thought to be desirable, stimulate investment in certain directions and discourage other economic activities. By various fiscal devices, it can influence both the total level and the distribution of investment funds over different sectors of production. Also, in many countries, a public agency plays some kind of coordinatÂ ing role in the formulation of long-term plans for output by the enterÂ prises sector; this may range from administrative direction in so-called centrally planned economies, to persuasion and advice in 'capitalist' economies. Accordingly, the public planner wishes to know what disÂ tribution of the nation's resources would be 'optimal'. This leads to the construction of various models which may be described under the general heading 'input-output type models'. This type of model has been largely developed by practitioners, among whom Sandee [B2] is probably the most outstanding and the earliest. A later, well-developed example of a model based on this approach is, for example, the Czech model by Cerny et al. [Bl]. A second approach considers the problem from the point of view of the private entrepreneur and his adviser, the manager and financial accountant.
This study paper investigates the relation between women and men's life stages in Denmark, and their time allocation in paid work, household work, childcare, and leisure time, and, in particular, how this allocation changes when moving from one stage to another stage. The study uses a new Danish panel dataset merged with Danish administrative register data, which allows for analyzing the impact of individual endogenous characteristics of the respondents, such as preferences for doing specific activities. It has been found that the labor supply of fathers of preschool children is not different from that of young men without children, while there is a negative correlation between mothers of preschool children and young women's labor supply. In comparing fathers and mothers of school children with those of preschool children, the study finds a positive correlation in both genders' labor supply. However, fixed effects estimations do not result in a reduction in mothers, nor in fathers, to preschool children's labor supply, indicating that there are some inborn characteristics for the other life-stage changes, which are not revealed by doing ordinary cross-sectional analyses.
Collocation is an important tool in describing lexical behaviour in language and has received increasing attention in recent years. Based on two corpora: LOCNESS (the Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays) and MLC (the Non-English major Mainland Chinese Learner Corpus), this book explores the features of Chinese learner English with analysis of grammatical and lexical collocations. The findings show that Chinese university students use collocations with considerably less variety and Chinese language and culture exert a substantial influence on their English writing. It also discusses ways to tackle the problems Chinese English learners face and the pedagogical implications for teaching English and learning English collocations. As one of the first systematic studies to investigate collocations in Chinese learner English based on learner corpora, this book not only analyzes how Chinese learners use collocations in their English writing, but also provides significant implications for foreign language teaching and learning.
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